Questions and Answers About COVID-19 Vaccines

It is completely understandable to have questions about the new COVID-19 vaccines. While medical and public health experts are still learning about COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccine, this is a website is a place where you can start getting answers. See below. (More Q&As coming soon. Check back often.)

For more information and resources regarding COVID-19 and the vaccines being developed to prevent it, visit

Even though COVID-19 vaccines are being developed more quickly than usual, vaccine safety is still a top priority in all phases of vaccine development, vaccine approval, and post-approval vaccine monitoring.

While steps are being streamlined or overlapped, none of them are being skipped. 

Below is what public health and medical experts in the U.S. are doing to make sure any COVID-19 vaccine approved in the U.S. is safe and works like it’s supposed to.

Clinical Trials

Just like all other vaccines in the U.S., COVID-19 vaccine candidates are first tested by vaccine manufacturers/researchers in three phases of clinical trials. The purpose of these trials is to see if the vaccine candidates are safe and effective. During the Phase 3 clinical trials, researchers compare the health of those who get the vaccine to that of those who didn’t. This helps researchers spot common side effects and see if those in the vaccinated group are less likely to get sick than those who got a placebo. (A placebo is a harmless, “fake” vaccine given to half the people in the clinical trial. People in the vaccine clinical trial are not told whether they received the actual vaccine or the placebo), COVID-19 vaccine trials done so far have generally included tens of thousands of people, including people of color.

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Researchers follow everyone in the clinical trials who gets the vaccine for at least two months after their last dose to make sure there aren’t any lingering issues or side effects that could be caused by the vaccine. 

Vaccines and Related Biological Products and Advisory Committee (VRBPAC)/FDA

Before being approved for use in the U.S., the FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products and Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) decided if each COVID-19 vaccine met its safety and effectiveness standard. If the known and potential benefits outweigh the known and potential risks of the vaccine, the FDA can make the vaccine(s) available for use in the U.S. by approval or emergency use authorization (EUA).

As of December 21, two COVID-19 vaccines (from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) have been approved by the FDA for emergency use authorization in the U.S.

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)/CDC

After each COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for emergency use (EUA) or approved by the FDA, the ACIP will meet to carefully review the available scientific research and make recommendations for the use of that particular vaccine. The CDC Director will review ACIP’s recommendations and decide whether or not to make them “official”.

As of December 21, the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines have been recommended for use in the U.S.

Post-Approval Vaccine Safety Monitoring Systems

After each COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for emergency use in the U.S. by the FDA, there are a number of vaccine safety monitoring systems that are working together to watch for rarer possible side effects that may not have been seen in the vaccine’s clinical trials.

Some of the vaccine safety monitoring systems have been around for a long time to monitor vaccine safety after being licensed for use in the U.S. population. These include:

  • Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) -U.S. system for reporting adverse events that happen after vaccination. Anyone can report to VAERS. Reports of side effects that are unexpected, appear to happen more often than expected, or have unusual patterns are followed up with specific studies.
  • Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) – A network of 9 healthcare organizations that conducts vaccine surveillance and research. VSD is also used to figure out if side effects identified using VAERS are actually related to vaccination.
  • Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Project -A collaboration between CDC and 7 medical research centers to provide expert consultation on individual cases and conduct clinical research studies about vaccine safety.

There are also systems being developed or expanded to add additional safety monitoring, giving the CDC, FDA, and others the ability to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine safety in real-time and make sure the vaccines are as safe as possible. These are:

  • V-SAFE – A new smartphone-based, after-vaccination health checker for people who receive COVID-19 vaccines. V-SAFE will use text messaging and web surveys from CDC to check in with vaccine recipients for health problems following COVID-19 vaccination. The system also will provide telephone follow up to anyone who reports medically significant (important) adverse events.
  • National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) – An acute care and long-term care facility monitoring system with reporting to VAERS.
  • FDA’s Biologics Effectiveness and Safety (BEST) System and FDA’s Sentinel InitiativeSystems that contain administrative and claims-based data for surveillance and research.
  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Database – FDA and CMS will collaborate to monitor the CMS database (includes approx. 650K nursing home residents).
  • Genesis – National Institute on Aging awarded a grant to a team of researchers based at Brown University to design a monitoring system to identify and track adverse health impacts after nursing home residents receive COVID-19 vaccinations.

If any serious safety issues are detected, immediate action will be taken to find out if the issue is related to the COVID-19 vaccine and determine the best course of action.

Monitoring Vaccine Safety for Veterans

  • Department of Veteran Affairs’ (VA) Data Warehouse and Electronic Health Records – A system of electronic health record and administrative data for active surveillance and research
  • VA Adverse Drug Event Reporting System (VA ADERS) – A national reporting system for adverse events following receipt of drugs and immunizations

Monitoring Vaccine Safety for Members of the Military 

Monitoring Vaccine Safety for Tribal Nations

  • Indian Health Service (IHS): IHS VAERS data— Spontaneous adverse event reporting to VAERS for populations served by IHS and Tribal facilities

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For now, there is only a limited supply of COVID-19 vaccine available. This means that everyone who wants a COVID-19 vaccine will not be able to get it right away.

The first COVID-19 vaccine doses are being offered to certain high-risk populations (see below). More COVID vaccine supply should become available throughout 2021, so everyone who wants a vaccine should be able to get one sometime this year.

Who is Deciding Who Will Be Offered the First Doses of the COVID-19 Vaccine?

In December 2020, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) – the group of public health and medical experts that makes vaccine recommendations for the U.S. – made its official recommendations of who should get the first available doses of the COVID-19 vaccine to the Director of the CDC.  They recommended that the COVID-19 vaccine doses be offered in phases. The ACIP’s recommendations were made with these three goals in mind:

  • Decrease death and serious disease as much as possible.
  • Preserve the functioning of society.
  • Reduce the extra burden COVID-19 is having on people already facing disparities.

The CDC has now officially adopted ACIP’s recommendations and gave the following guidance to the states:

First available COVID-19 vaccine doses should go to people in Phase 1A.

  • Phase 1A
    • Healthcare personnel (HCPs), including non-medical staff.
    • People who live and work in long-term care facilities (LTCFs).

Groups who should be offered vaccination next are in Phases 1B and 1C.

  • Phase 1B
    • Frontline essential workers. These workers are in sectors essential to the functioning of society and are at higher risk of COVID-19. They include first responders (firefighters, police), educators (teachers, support staff, daycare), food & agriculture workers, workers in manufacturing, corrections workers, U.S. Postal Service workers, public transit workers, and grocery store workers.
    • People 75 years and older. This population is at high risk of hospitalization, illness, and death from COVID-19.
  • Phase 1C
    • People 65 – 74 years old. This population is at high risk of hospitalization, illness, and death from COVID-19.
    • People 16 – 64 years old with high-risk/underlying medical conditions. These conditions increase the risk of serious, life-threatening complications from COVID-19.
    • Other essential workers. These include people who work in transportation and logistics, food service, housing construction and finance, information technology, communications, energy, law, media, public safety, waste and wastewater, and public health.

As more vaccine becomes available, vaccination recommendations will expand to include more people.

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While CDC provides COVID-19 vaccination recommendations and guidance for the U.S., each state (or city or county) makes the decision exactly how COVID-19 vaccines will be distributed. Click here to find the COVID information on the website for your state or territorial health department.

While waiting for a COVID-19 vaccine, here are other ways that you can help protect your family from COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses like flu.
  • Get your flu vaccine as soon as possible. You want to protect your family at least 2 weeks before the flu begins spreading in your community.
  • Follow CDC’s recommendations for using a face mask.
  • Practice social distancing – stay at least 6 feet from other people who are not from your household in both indoor and outdoor spaces.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • If you are sick, stay away from other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your germs to them.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash. If you don’t have a tissue, use the inside of your elbow.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Germs spread this way.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently-touched objects and surfaces in your home.
  • Keep these items on hand when venturing out of your house: a face mask, tissues, and a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, if possible.
  • Follow public health advice regarding stay-at-home orders.


Since there are not currently enough COVID-19 vaccine doses to go around at this time, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the CDC recommends that healthcare personnel and those working and living in long-term care facilities be offered the first available doses of vaccine. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, who are in one of the groups recommended to get a COVID-19 vaccine, may choose to be vaccinated

Things for Pregnant or Breastfeeding Women to Consider When Deciding Whether or Not to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine: Advice from CDC and ACIP
  • Getting a COVID-19 vaccine is a personal choice for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
    • While a conversation with a healthcare provider may be helpful, it is not required prior to vaccination. Things that pregnant and breastfeeding women may want to discuss with their healthcare provider include:
      • Your chances of coming in contact with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19
      • Risks of COVID-19 to you and the potential risks to your fetus/newborn baby
      • What is known about the vaccine: how well it works to develop protection in the body, known side effects of the vaccine, and the current lack of data of getting vaccinated during pregnancy and breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19, including illness that results in ICU admission, placement on a ventilator, and death. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth.
  • The COVID-19 vaccines made using mRNA technology (Pfizer’s and Moderna’s COVID vaccines are mRNA vaccines) are expected to have some side effects. Pregnant women who experience fever after getting a COVID-19 vaccine may be counseled to take acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol) because fever has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Acetaminophen may be suggested as an option for pregnant women experiencing other post-vaccination symptoms as well.
  • There are limited data about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in people who are pregnant. Animal developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) studies are ongoing and studies in people who are pregnant are planned. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have safety monitoring systems in place to capture information about vaccination during pregnancy and will closely monitor reports. While studies have not yet been done, based on how mRNA vaccines work, experts believe they are unlikely to pose a risk for people who are pregnant. mRNA vaccines do not contain the live virus that causes COVID-19 and therefore cannot give someone COVID-19. Additionally, mRNA vaccines do not interact with genetic material DNA because the mRNA does not enter the nucleus of the cell. Cells break apart the mRNA quickly. However, the potential risks of mRNA vaccines to the pregnant person and her fetus are unknown because these vaccines have not been studied in pregnant women.
  • Routine testing for pregnancy before COVID-19 vaccination is not recommended. Women who are trying to become pregnant do not need to avoid pregnancy after receiving an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. (Both the Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are made using mRNA technology).
  • There are no data on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in breastfeeding women or on the effects of mRNA vaccines on infants who are breastfed or on milk production/excretion. mRNA vaccines are not thought to be a risk to breastfeeding infants.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women who decide to get vaccinated should continue to follow the current guidelines to prevent the spread of COVID-19 after they are vaccinated:
    • Wear a mask
    • Stay at least six feet away from others (social distancing)
    • Avoid crowds
    • Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds or using hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol
    • Follow CDC travel guidance
    • Follow quarantine guidance after exposure to COVID-19
    • Follow any applicable workplace guidance

To read what the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has to say about COVID-19 vaccination of pregnant and breastfeeding women, click here.

For more information about other vaccines recommended for pregnant women to protect themselves and their babies , visit

For more information about COVID-19 and the vaccines being created to prevent it, see other questions on this Q&A page or visit

There are many COVID-19 vaccines being developed – for use in the U.S. and around the world. View this tracker to learn more about COVID-19 vaccine candidates – and treatments – being created in the U.S. and abroad.

According to the CDC, there are currently, there are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines that are – or will soon be – in phase 3 clinical trials in the U.S.

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines
  • Protein subunit vaccines
  • Vector vaccines

Learn more about how vaccines work.

The first doses of COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use by the FDA (created by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines.

An mRNA vaccine is a new type of vaccine that protects against infectious diseases. mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein – or a piece of a protein – that triggers an immune response (antibodies) in our bodies. These antibodies then protect us from future infections.

Specifically, COVID-19 mRNA vaccines tell our cells to make a harmless piece of the “spike protein.” Spike proteins are the red “spikes” that you see on the surface of the coronavirus. (See picture of the virus below). Our immune system sees that the protein doesn’t belong there and this causes our body to start building our immune response and making antibodies, like what happens when we “naturally” get a COVID-19 infection. Again, it is these antibodies that protect us the next time we come in contact with COVID-19.

Can I get COVID disease from the COVID-19 vaccine?

No. COVID-19 vaccines made using mRNA cannot give you COVID. mRNA vaccines don’t use the live virus that causes COVID-19, meaning that the vaccine cannot cause you to get COVID.

Does mRNA stay in my body after I get the vaccine?

No, our cells break down and get rid of the mRNA soon after it has been recognized and translated in order to make the protein that triggers our body’s immune response.

Why would I want to get a vaccine instead of just getting the natural immunity that comes from getting the disease? Isn’t that better?

The benefit of mRNA vaccines, like all vaccines, is that you get protection from a disease without ever having to risk the serious, and sometimes deadly, consequences of getting sick with COVID-19.

COVID-19 vaccine doses will be given for free to people living in the U.S. 

Vaccination providers will be able to charge an administration fee for giving the COVID shot to someone. However, people who get the COVID vaccine should not have to pay this fee out of their own pocket. Instead, vaccine providers can get this fee reimbursed by their patient’s public insurance (e.g., Medicaid, Medicare, CHIP) or private insurance company. For uninsured patients, vaccine providers can get the vaccine administration fee reimbursed through the Health Resources and Services Administration’s (HRSA’s) Provider Relief Fund.

Learn more about paying for vaccines for all members of your family (children, teens and adults).

No. The false claim that COVID-19 vaccines contain microchips that can track people started earlier this year. This myth comes from people taking comments by billionaire and Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates completely out of context.

Gates is often the subject of conspiracy theories and vaccine-related disinformation because of his foundation’s work related to public health and vaccines. While it’s true that The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation works with global partners to provide effective vaccines and medications to those who need it most, and they also invest in the development of new vaccines to prevent infectious disease, Gates is not directly involved in the creation of any vaccines. There is absolutely no evidence that backs up this false claim.

See more COVID-19 mythbusters from the World Health Organization (WHO).

No. There is no connection between 5G networks and COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccines.

Viruses cannot travel on radio waves/mobile networks. In fact, COVID-19 is spreading in many countries that do not have 5G mobile networks. In addition, the way that vaccines work, they don’t need to be, and cannot be, “activated”.

Learn more about how vaccines work on our website or by watching this short animated video.

So far, the two vaccines that have been approved for emergency use in the U.S. need 2 doses (shots) to be effective.

The first shot starts building protection against COVID-19. A second shot three or four weeks later (depending on which vaccine you get) is needed to get the best protection from the vaccine. It takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination, so it will take about 1-2 weeks after the second dose for you to get protection against COVID-19.

If the COVID-19 vaccine that you get requires two doses, you will need to get both doses from the same type of COVID-19 vaccine (created by the same vaccine manufacturer).

Learn more about how vaccines work.

Learn more about mRNA vaccines in this video below.

According to the CDC, as both COVID-19 infection and the COVID-19 vaccine are new, public health experts do not currently know what percent of the population needs to get vaccinated in order to achieve herd immunity (also known as community immunity) to COVID-19.

What is Community Immunity?

Diseases, like COVID-19 can travel quickly through a community and make a lot of people sick. However, when enough people have been infected with or vaccinated against a certain disease, the virus or bacteria can’t travel as easily from person to person, and the entire community is less likely to get that disease. This is what is known as “herd immunity” or “community immunity”.

The percentage of people who need to have protection through natural immunity or vaccination in order to achieve herd immunity varies by disease. The levels of vaccination rates needed to protect communities from diseases vary based on several factors, including how infectious each disease is and how well the vaccine works.

Learn more about community immunity by checking out the the FRED Measles Epidemic Simulator, developed by the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. It shows how measles spreads when only 80% of the community is vaccinated (too low to benefit from herd immunity) vs. when 95% of the community is vaccinated (high enough to benefit from herd immunity).

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No. Vaccines can not alter DNA. This is a great example of misinformation designed to scare people away from lifesaving vaccines and downplay the very real risks of vaccine-preventable diseases. At a glance, it sounds possible, but the science doesn’t support it.

Some of the COVID-19 vaccines (such as the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna) are made using messenger RNA (mRNA). According to the CDC, mRNA is not able to alter or modify a person’s DNA. In fact, the mRNA from a COVID-19 vaccine never enters the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA is kept. This means the mRNA doesn’t interact with our DNA in any way. Instead, COVID-19 vaccines that use mRNA work with a body’s natural defenses to safely develop protection against COVID-19 disease.

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A few vaccines (chickenpox, rubella, hepatitis A, and one of the rabies vaccines) are made using human fetal cells because certain viruses grow better in these cells than in animal cells or eggs. But while it’s true those cells contain DNA, it isn’t likely to affect ours. Why? Because DNA is fragile, and a lot of it is damaged in the vaccine manufacturing process. The tiny amount that does make it into a vaccine is generally broken up and unable to make whole proteins or incorporate itself into our body’s DNA. If it were that easy to manipulate our DNA, gene therapy wouldn’t be so difficult to achieve.

For more information, visit How Do Vaccines Work? and Vaccine Ingredients

There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines will lead to infertility.

Part of why people believe this misinformation has to do with the similarities between the spike proteins (the red spikes) around the coronavirus and the proteins needed to form the placenta, called syncytin-1.  

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines teach your body to make a harmless piece of the spike proteins (like what we see on the surface of the coronavirus). Your immune system sees that the spike protein doesn’t belong there and this causes your body to start building an immune response and making antibodies, like what happens if you “naturally” get a COVID-19 infection. This means that the next time you come in contact with the virus that causes COVID-19, your body knows how to fight it off.

Some people have falsely claimed that those same antibodies that teach your body to fight against COVID will attack proteins on the placenta, leading to infertility. But while those placental proteins are similar to the coronavirus spike proteins, they aren’t the same – and our bodies know that. The antibodies know what they’re looking for, and the two aren’t similar enough to confuse them.


While this particular claim is aimed at the COVID-19 vaccine, it’s not new. It’s a pretty common tactic already used by people who want to scare people away from getting vaccinated against other diseases, such as hepatitis B, polio, and cancer-causing HPV. Just like with COVID-19 vaccines, these claims just aren’t based on science.

For more info, visit the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists – Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Women’s Health Care: A Message for Patients | ACOG

Or visit

You can also fact check this false claim here

Learn more about how vaccines work.

The two COVID-19 vaccines that have been approved for emergency use in the U.S. (so far) are both mRNA vaccines. mRNA vaccines do not use the live virus that causes COVID-19 and cannot cause you to get COVID or spread it to others.

While the vaccine can’t give you COVID-19, it might still be possible to get or even spread the virus to others even after you’re vaccinated. Your body needs time to develop protection after getting vaccinated. And although the vaccine lowers your chances of getting seriously sick or dying from COVID-19, researchers are still studying whether getting vaccinated will keep you from getting and spreading the virus in the future, even if you don’t feel sick. For these reasons, medical experts still recommend you keep wearing a mask, washing your hands and avoid being around people you don’t live with.

You might experience some side effects after getting one or both doses of the COVID-19 vaccine (shot) — and that’s totally normal.

While the side effects after getting vaccinated against COVID can be uncomfortable, they are generally mild, temporary, and nothing compared to how sick you could become with COVID-19. What’s more, the reactions are often a sign that your body is responding to the vaccine.

Reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine can vary, depending on your age, which vaccine product you’re getting (Pfizer’s vaccine, Moderna’s vaccine, etc.), and whether it’s your first or second dose of COVID vaccine.

You might get one or more of the following reactions after getting the first or second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

  • Pain, redness or swelling where you got the shot
  • Tiredness (Fatigue)
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Joint pain
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes on the side you got vaccinated

These possible side effects usually happen within 3 days of getting the vaccine and should only last a few days. Not everyone who gets vaccinated will have side effects. Some people get the vaccine and feel fine. But if you’re worried or if you have other reactions after getting the vaccine, please call your doctor right away.

How to Handle Side Effects

If you feel uncomfortable or have pain after the first or second COVID shot, talk to your doctor about taking an over-the-counter medicine like ibuprofen (e.g., Advil) or acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol). To reduce pain and discomfort in your arm where you got the shot, the CDC suggests that you apply a clean, cool, wet washcloth over the area, or use/exercise your arm.

COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Monitoring

If someone has a severe allergic reaction after getting the COVID vaccine, their vaccination provider will send a report to the Vaccine Adverse Reporting System (VAERS), a U.S. system for reporting adverse events. Anyone can report to VAERS. Reports of vaccine side effects that are unexpected, appear to happen more often than expected, or have unusual patterns are followed up with specific studies. 

Watch VYF’s video about COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects Below:

According to the CDC, there are multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants (the virus that causes COVID-19) that are circulating around world.

But, at this time, there is no evidence that these virus variants cause more severe COVID-19 illness or increased risk of death due to COVID-19. However, some of these variant viruses DO seem to spread more easily and quickly.

  • United Kingdom (UK) – In the UK, a new variant of the virus that causes COVID-19 has been discovered. This variant seems to spread more easily and quickly than other variants, but there is no evidence that it causes more severe illness or increased risk of death. This variant has now been seen in numerous countries, including the United States and Canada.
  • South Africa – This virus variant seen in South Africa shares some mutations with the variant detected in the UK. There have been cases caused by this variant outside of South Africa. Like the variant in the UK, this variant seems to spread more easily and quickly than other variants, but currently, there is no evidence that it causes more severe illness or increased risk of death.
  • Nigeria –  At this time, there is no evidence to show that this COVID-19 virus variant is causing more severe illness or increased spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria.

Experts are working to learn more about these virus variants to better understand them.

Researchers are Studying the COVID-19 Virus Variants to Find Out More Information

Researchers are studying these variants of the virus that causes COVID-19 to find out more information about them, including:

  • How widely these new virus variants have spread
  • How the new variants differ from the original COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2)
  • How the COVID-19 disease caused by these new variants differs from the COVID-19 disease caused by other virus variants that are currently circulating
  • If the variant viruses are detected by currently available COVID viral tests.
  • If the variant viruses respond to medicines currently being used to treat people for COVID-19
  • If the variant viruses change the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. At this time, there is no evidence that this is occurring, and most experts believe this is unlikely to occur because of the nature of the immune response to the virus.
More about Virus Variants

It is not unusual for viruses to have variants. Viruses constantly change through mutation, and new variants of a virus are expected to occur over time. Sometimes new variants emerge and disappear. Other times, new virus variants remain with us.


Learn more from CDC.

The two COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the United States do not contain eggs, preservatives, or latex. They also don’t contain live virus.

For a full list of ingredients, please see each vaccine’s Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers from the FDA.

No. For most people, the side effects after getting a dose of COVID-19 vaccine should not be worse than getting a COVID-19 infection.

Can Vaccines Cause Side Effects?

Like all medications and vaccines, getting a COVID-19 shot can cause side effects. While the side effects can be uncomfortable, they are generally mild, temporary and usually happen within 3 days of getting a dose of the vaccine. The side effects should go away on their own within a week. 

Vaccines work by jumpstarting our body’s defenses (the immune system) into making antibodies that protect our bodies from germs. That’s a big reason why you get a fever and body aches or feel tired when you get sick. Your immune system is working hard to protect your body from these germs that can cause serious diseases.

Because vaccines kick off that same process, you might experience some of the same things, but to a much lesser degree.

Why Vaccines are Usually Safer for You – and Others Around You – Than Getting the Disease

Thankfully, your immune system won’t have to work as hard responding to a vaccine as it would have to if you were infected with COVID-19, and more importantly, those antibodies don’t come with the added risk of getting seriously sick or hospitalized like you might if you get COVID-19.

So while you might have an uncomfortable day or two after getting vaccinated, it’s actually a sign your body is making those important antibodies against COVID-19, and they won’t be nearly as bad as a “natural” case of COVID-19 infection might be. If you get COVID-19, you also risk giving it to loved ones who may get very sick. Getting vaccinated is a safer choice.



No. Just like people can have allergic reactions to penicillin or peanuts, it is possible to have an allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccines. It’s not common, but some people have had severe allergic reactions after getting a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. (Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines.)

That’s why it is important to tell your healthcare provider before you get your vaccine if you ever had a severe allergic reaction that required you to get epinephrine, use an EpiPen, and/or be treated in a hospital. In particular, make sure to tell your healthcare provider if you’ve had:

  • Severe allergic reactions to other vaccines or injectable medicines (This doesn’t necessarily mean you can’t get the COVID-19 vaccine. Your doctor can help decide what is best for you).
  • Severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine or any of its ingredients
  • Immediate allergic reaction of any severity to a previous dose of a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine or any of its ingredients, including polyethylene glycol (PEG).
  • Immediate allergic reaction of any severity to polysorbate (Polysorbate is not a COVID-19 vaccine ingredient, but people sensitive to polyethylene glycol might also be sensitive to polysorbate. Having an allergy to polysorbate doesn’t necessarily mean you can’t get the COVID-19 vaccine. Your doctor can help decide what is best for you).

Thankfully, when allergic reactions happen, they happen soon after getting the COVID-19 shot and can be managed by a trained healthcare provider. People with a history of severe allergic reactions will be asked to wait 30 minutes after getting the COVID-19 shot so they can be monitored just in case they have a reaction. All other people will be monitored for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.

If you get a COVID-19 vaccine and you think you might be having a severe allergic reaction after leaving your vaccination provider, seek medical care right away by calling 911.

Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated with a mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine?

If you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to any ingredient in a COVID-19 vaccine, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), the CDC recommends that you should not get that specific COVID vaccine.

Also, if you have a severe allergic reaction after getting the first COVID-19 shot, you should not get the second shot.

Learn more about CDC’s recommendations related to COVID-19 vaccines and severe allergic reactions.


Both COVID-19 infection and the COVID-19 vaccine are new, and medical and public health experts do not know yet how long protection lasts for those who get infected with COVID or those who get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Both COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the U.S. (Pfizer and Moderna) require 2 doses. You need to get BOTH doses for the best protection against COVID-19. As with all vaccinations, it will take time after getting vaccinated for your body to build immunity. It will take about 1-2 weeks after the 2nd dose of COVID-19 vaccine for you to be protected.

Yes. You should be vaccinated, even if you’ve already had a COVID-19 infection.

If you were treated for COVID-19 symptoms with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are unsure what treatments you received or if you have more questions about getting a COVID-19 vaccine.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is tracking COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States. Visit their COVID Data Tracker by clicking here.

Johns Hopkins University of Medicine also has a COVID-19 tracker if you are interested in seeing information from other credible medical and public health experts.

No. The new coronavirus that causes COVID-19 was not made in a lab, While this particular coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is new, coronaviruses (in general), such as SARS and MERS, have been around for decades. It is not unusual for coronaviruses to cause serious disease and outbreaks in humans.


No. There are no other vaccines that will protect you from getting COVID-19.

While a flu vaccine will not protect you from getting COVID-19, but it can prevent you from getting flu at the same time as COVID-19.

Yes. According to the CDC, while experts learn more about the protection that COVID-19 vaccines provide, it will be important for everyone – even those who were vaccinated – to continue:

Other factors, including how many people get vaccinated against COVID-19 and how the coronavirus is spreading in communities, will also help experts decide when we can stop following these public health guidelines.